A backward spring and dry summer 1917
On October 25 1917, School Inspector W.H.M. May reported that “There was a slight increase in the number of school gardens, but owing to the backward spring and dry summer, they were not in many instances, as successful as the teachers had hoped.” It was a Province-wide problem, as J.W. Gibson, Director of Elementary Agricultural Education, outlined in his 1917 report: “Summer proved disastrous to many gardens that under ordinary weather conditions are very good. Even more serious, however, than the Summer drought in some gardens was the lack of cultivation during the months of July and August, when the schools are closed.” The Daily Colonist on September 11 1917 had previously noted: “The schools have not been very successful as a whole in the school garden work, Prospect Lake being relied upon to save the honour of the district [at the Saanich Fair]”. (This comment turned out to be overly pessimistic, as seven schools competed for best school garden prize at the Saanich Fair).
District Supervisor of Agricultural Education
Then a professor Hallwright used to come round the schools and give us instruction in gardening. For a few years we had little garden plots and I got the prize for best school garden. Westward Ho! Still have the book and have read it several times.Kenneth Jennings, student at Cedar Hill school c. 1917-1918
In August 1917, Saanich resident Horatio Ellington “Ray” Hallwright was appointed by the Department of Education to be District Supervisor of Agricultural Education for Victoria and Saanich. Hallwright approached the Saanich School Board with an idea to prepare the grounds of all the schools so they would be ready for garden instruction in the coming school year. He mainly wanted to focus on “dry farming”, conserving soil moisture where there was no irrigation – as we’ve seen this was a real issue facing school gardens like Keatings and Gordon Head where there was no municipal water. But when the Board tried to get money from the Saanich Council to support Hallwright’s new garden initiatives, the Council was vehemently against it. The report on the discussion made quite a detailed news item in the newspapers.
Saanich council last night refused a request from the Board of School Trustees for a grant of $500 to be expended in putting the grounds of the various schools in shape for next Summer, when it was the intention of the newly appointed superintendent of agricultural instruction to teach the children what could be done by dry farming in the district.The Daily Colonist October 3 1917
These are the issues that came up during the Council discussion, reported in The Daily Colonist October 3 1917 and Victoria Daily Times October 3 1917:
Councillor Diggon, businessman and parent to a school child, represented Ward Seven, the most populated “suburban” ward where Tillicum School had recently been opened: “His district held cement and plank sidewalks to the schools in far greater favor than having the mud which surrounds the schools scraped up at an expense to the district of possibly $80, and he was against the grant.”
Councillor Carey, president of the Ward Two Cottage Garden Association, “thought the supervisor was under the impression the impression that the children of Saanich lived in flats. As a matter of fact, the children attending Tolmie School came from homes having the finest cottage gardens around Victoria.”
Councillor Tanner, who was president of the South Saanich Fruit Growers’ Association, said: “The more you help the preliminary efforts, the less will be done in practical work.”
Reeve Borden, a Lake Hill farmer, “thought these new-fangled ideas were not going to be popular if the work was done for the pupils. He would like to be able to farm that way, if he could get someone to do the work, he would have a fine time sitting back and bossing the job. He thought that the work should be done by the pupils. It was good for them to learn just what was meant by sub-soiling, just what sort of backache came from digging a double trench, and then they would look after the gardens to see that some result came from all the labour. He was against spending money on work the pupils ought to do themselves.”
Councillor Jones stated he had heard of one teacher who had spent $15 on seed potatoes and the yield would be practically nothing.
Reeve Borden – “She will get her experience. That is worth something.”Victoria Daily Times October 3 1917
Councillor Somers, a successful Gordon Head fruit grower, said “the fault with Saanich school gardens was not that the soil was unsuitable, or the conditions unsatisfactory, but that immediately the summer vacation came around the gardens were neglected and the whole thing became a waste. Nobody seemed responsible, and if the whole revenue of Saanich was spent upon them for part of the year, they could not be expected to look well when neglected for the remainder of the season.”
Municipal Clerk Cowper explained that this year the school gardens had been a failure, and that, in the opinion of the new supervisor, the time was not ripe for irrigation, on the other hand dry farming could be practiced with success in the district if a grant for putting the ground into proper shape was made, without which the school board may as well throw up gardening at schools. Last year was the first attempt, and better arrangements for looking after the gardens during the summer holidays would doubtless be made.
Saanich Council declined the appropriation for school gardening funds. Not long after, the discussion continued through letters to the editor of the Victoria Daily Times. It seemed that District Supervisor H.E. Hallwright had written a letter, then commented on by Ward One Councillor, businessman Charles B. Jones.
A few days later “Moderation” wrote to the editor:
Hallwright again appealed to the Saanich School Board to get money for the school gardens. The Daily Colonist on November 13 1917 reported: “Mr. H.E. Hallwright again urged the Board to take action in regard to certain of the school gardens, claiming in the course of a long letter that unless something was done now, he would be unable to get satisfactory results until 1919. Owing to the lack of funds until the new year the Board felt that they could do nothing and the matter will stand over until the new Board takes office.”
Note — the antipathy towards Hallwright’s schemes was also found in other British Columbia communities. Patrick A. Dunae writes: “The Elementary Agricultural Education Branch initiated several innovative programmes. However, Gibson encountered scepticism and indifference among parents, teachers, and school trustees, many of whom thought his missionary zeal for “rural values” was at odds with the realities of an increasingly urban industrial society.” (The Homeroom) In 1920, this scepticism and indifference would appear again in a much more virulent form.
Saanich School Garden Accounts
Despite the initial disinterest by Saanich Council, by the end of 1917, the Municipality was giving money to gardens at twelve schools as municipal accounts show. (The higher amount seems to indicate they really developed their garden that year).
|Cedar Hill School||$52.35||$48.82||$81.14|
A positive growing year in 1918
Despite the problems in Fall 1917, the school year ended with positive reports about school gardens in Saanich in Spring/Summer 1918. School Inspector W.H.M. May observed: “With the appointment of an instructor in agriculture for the Victoria High School, whose duties also include the supervision of school grounds in Saanich, this branch is being better organized and the work taken up with greater enthusiasm then formerly.” Yet, Inspector May noted the continual problem: “The care of gardens during the summer vacation has yet to be solved; they were very successfully carried over this summer through the devotion of the supervisor, but it is not to be expected that he will always assume this responsibility.” (Report on the school year ending June 30 1918)
Director of Elementary Agricultural Education J.W. Gibson had a more (typically) “boosterish” view of Hallwright: “The success of the Saanich school-gardens during the past year is in large measure due to the untiring energy of Mr. H.E. Hallwright, District Supervisor of Agricultural Instruction, who devoted his entire summer to personal supervision of the gardens. Mr. Hallwright’s great devotion to rural-school interests has done much towards winning the support and co-operation of both teachers and parents throughout the district.”
Here is an example of how District Supervisor Hallwright helped North Dairy School with their garden in 1918, as reported by Maria Lawson in The Daily Colonist on May 11 1919:
“…there is no land in the oak-shaded grounds which could be spared for a garden…so borrowing a low-lying but rich corner of ground across the road, Miss Berton with Miss Offerhaus and the older boys and girls went to work last year. By Mr. Hallwright’s advice, their first task was to lay in a drain pipe to carry off the surplus water. This year, owing to the late rains, a corner of the ground, which needs a spur to serve it, is still wet. A plentiful supply of lime, will, however, sweeten the ground and the space will make a good Winter garden. Meanwhile, the whole school is breaking up hard clods, cleaning paths, and digging up the tall grass around the fences, while the early crops of lettuce, spinach, radishes, onions, carrots, beets and peas are growing. By the time the cauliflowers, tomatoes and pumpkins are ready to transplant and weeding must begin, everything will be in apple-pie order. To help things along Mr. Hallwright lent the boys his cultivator.”
By the end of the 1918 growing season, H.E. Hallwright was highly commended by the Saanich School Board. See “Trustees Pleased by Garden School Work”, The Daily Colonist November 15 1918.
Chairman Brooks, of the Saanich School Board, summarized the opinions of the Board as follows: “You have done well, indeed, Mr. Hallwright. All the district is well satisfied with the results which you have attained and the instruction which the children have received. I am sure that your work has been a great help, and I hope that it will be carried on during the next year. Speaking personally as a farmer, I know nothing about gardening, but I am glad that my children have had the opportunity to learn so much, and I know that this is the general feeling among the parents of the children attending the Saanich schools.” Trustees McGregor and Watson agreed with the sentiments expressed by the chairman.
Mr. Hallwright stated that much of the good which had been attained in Saanich had been due to the policy which the Board had followed with consistency, claiming that by leaving wide discretionary powers to him the trustees had enabled him to spend money where needed to ensure success, and thereby encourage the children to continue the work with the enthusiasm. Mr. Hallwright reported that the only drawbacks to the complete success of the school gardens in Saanich during the past year had been the depredations of poultry and thieves, with occasional incursions by hungry cattle.